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WWER Reactors

Overview of VVER Units under Construction in Russia:

Eight VVER units are now under construction at the Novovoronezh-2, Leningrad-2, Baltic and Rostov sites (see Table 1).

Table 1

 

 

NPP

 

Unit No.

 

Unit Type

 

Design

Year of Commissi-oning

 

Location

Novovoronezh-2

1

VVER-1200

AES-2006

2015

Novovoronezh, Voronezh Region

 

2

VVER-1200

AES-2006

2016

Leningrad-2

1

VVER-1200

AES-2006

2015

Sosnovy Bor, Leningrad Region

 

2

VVER 1200

AES-2006

2017

Baltic

1

VVER-1200

AES-2006

2018

 

Neman, Kaliningrad Region

 

2

VVER-1200

AES-2006

2021

Rostov

3

VVER-1000

V-320

2014

 

Volgodonsk, Rostov Region

 

4

VVER-1000

V-320

2019

 

The AES-2006 design meets all modern international safety requirements. It applies active channels of the safety systems (duplicating each other), a melt localization device, a passive heat removal system from the reactor containment and a passive heat removal system from the steam generators. The design comprises protection from external risks.

Novovoronezh NPP-2:

Novovoronezh-2 is a leading power plant of the new AES-2006 design with VVER-1200.

OAO Atomenergoproekt is the general contractor for design and construction of Novovoronezh-2.

The construction is based on the AES-2006 design developed by Atomenergoproekt applying the VVER-1200 reactor. AEAS-2006 is a unified design of a power plant comprising the latest achievements of the domestic engineering thought. AES-2006 is based on the technical decisions of the AES-92 design.

The first on-site activities commenced in June 2007.

On June 24, 2008, Atomenergoproekt began concreting the foundation slab of the reactor building of Unit 1 – the basic construction stage of Novovoronezh-2.

On July 12, 2009, the foundations of Unit 2 were laid.

Leningrad NPP-2:

OAO St. Petersburg Research and Design Institute Atomenergoproekt is the general contractor for the design of Leningrad-2.

Leningrad-2 is a result of evolutionary development of the most widespread and, as a sequence, technically perfect type of plants – an NPP with VVER-1200. Its closest analogue if the Tianwan NPP in China, also designed by St. Petersburg AEP and commissioned in 2007.

The first concrete was poured into the foundation slab of the Unit 1 reactor building in 2008, which signified the beginning the basic stage of construction.

In April 2010, the construction of the Unit 2 reactor building was begun.⁠

Baltic NPP:

OAO St. Petersburg Research and Design Institute Atomenergoproekt is the general contractor for the design of the Baltic NPP.

Baltic is a nuclear plant of the AES-2006 series with a VVER-1200 based on the design of Lenigrad-2.

The ceremony of laying the foundation stone of the Baltic NPP took place on February 25, 2010.

Rostov NPP:

OAO Nizhny Novgorod Engineering Company Atomenergoproekt (NIAEP), which has designed and operated Units 1 and 2 of the Rostov NPP, is the general contractor for the design of Rostov 3 and 4.

The Rostov NPP is from a series of unified NPP designs with VVER-1000 meeting the requirements of mass construction. These are series VVER units with the V-320 reactor, enhanced PGV-1000M steam generators and an electrical capacity of up to 1,100 MW each. That is, Rostov will have units with VVER-1000 (V-320) reactors similar to the existing ones.

Preparatory work prior to the full-scale construction of Units 3 and 4 were begun in the middle of 2009.

The construction of Unit 3 was begun in November 2009.

The full-scale construction of Unit 4 was begun in June 2010.⁠

Technical Characteristics of VVERs of Nuclear Plants under Construction:

The V-491 reactor applied in the AES-2006 design is a further improvement of the VVER-1000 reactors and developed in line with the latest requirements and achievements of nuclear engineering.

OAO OKB Gidropress is the general designer of the reactor, and Kurchatov Institute is a scientific leader of the reactor and nuclear plant.

The reactor systems include a VVER-1200, pressurization system and four circulation loops, each containing a PGV-1000MKP steam generator, a GCNA-1391 main circulation pump and primary circuit pipes Dn 850.

For main characteristics and parameters of the reactor in general and AES-2006 reactor equipment see Table 2.

 

Table 2

Parameter

Value

1. Reactor thermal rating, MW

3,200

2. Electrical rating, MW

1198.8

3. Run time at thermal rating during a year (effective), hours per year

8,400

4. Available plant capability factor (average for NPP lifetime), at least

90%

5. Maximum burnup, average for fuel assemblies, MW days per kg U

up to 70

6. Maximum linear heat current, W/cm

420

7. Number of fuel assemblies per core, pieces

163

8. Coolant pressure at core outlet, absolute, MPa

16.2+0.3

9. Coolant temperature at reactor inlet, °С

298.6

10. Coolant temperature at reactor outlet, °С

329.7+5

11. Coolant flow rate through reactor, m3/h

85,600+2,900

12. Generated steam pressure at steam generator header outlet, absolute, MPa

7.00+0.10

13. Generated steam temperature in steam generator shell, °С

287.0+1.0

14. Evaporative capacity of one steam generator (at feed water temperature of 225°С and continuous blowout flow rate of 15 tons per hour), tons per hour

1,600+112

15. Generated steam moisture at steam generator header outlet, %, at least

0.2

16. NPP life, years

50

17. Heating capacity of unit, Gcal/h (MW)

250 (300)

Novovoronezh NPP:

The Novovoronezh NPP is one of the oldest facilities of the Russian Federation's atomic energy. When Novovoronezh 1 was started on September 30, 1964, it marked the beginning of the history of atomic energy not only in Russia but in a number of countries of Eastern and Central Europe.

Novovoronezh fully provides the electrical energy needs of Voronezh Region, and up to 90% of heating needs of the town of Novovoronezh.

It is the first Russian NPP with water-moderated water cooled reactors VVER. For more than forty years, a total of five units with VVERs have been constructed and commissioned. Each of the currently operating reactors is a leading one, a prototype of series power water-moderated water-cooled reactors VVER-440 and VVER-1000.

The plant was constructed in four stages:

- stage one – Unit 1 (VVER-210 in 1964);

- stage two – Unit 2 (VVER-365 in 1969);

- stage three – Units 3 and 4 (VVER-440 in 1971 and 1972);

- stage four – Unit 5 (VVER-1000 in 1980).

In 1984, after 20 years of operations, Unit 1 was shutdown, and in 1990 – Unit 2 for their further decommissioning. At present, Novovoronezh 3, 4 and 5 are in operation.

Circulating water sources of the plant are:

- Units 3 and 4 – cooling towers;

- Unit 5 – a cooling pond.

Make-up water to the cooling towers and cooling pond comes from the Don river.

For the first time in Europe, Units 3 and 4 underwent a unique set of work to extend their lifetime beyond the designed one for 15 years. Relevant Rostechnadzor licenses were obtained.

After a unique refurbishment and upgrade of Unit 5, its operating life was extended beyond the designed one, and the first Russian million-plus unit with a VVER was re-commissioned on September 22, 2011.

As a result, Novovoronezh 5, which was previously a Gen II unit, now belongs to Gen III. It fully complies with the modern Russian standards and IAEA recommendations.

The installed capacity of Novovoronezh is 1,834 MW.

For information on the operating units of the Novovoronezh NPP see the table below.

Unit No.

 

Installed capacity, MW

Reactor type

Reactor plant type

Turbine type

Generator type

Date of start-up

3

417

VVER-440

V-179

K-220-44

TVV-220-2

12.12.1971

4

417

VVER-440

V-179

K-220-44

TVV-220-2

28.12.1972

5

1000

VVER-1000

V-187

K-500-60/1500

TVV-500-4

31.05.1980

Considering the lessons learnt after the Fukushima-Daiichi accident, the following has been done:

1.     Stress tests of the NPP units with the issue of the 18.11.2011 Report on Safety Analysis of the Novovoronezh NPP under Extreme External Effects;

2.     Additional mobile emergency equipment to mitigate design basis accidents and manage beyond design basis ones was supplied:

- 7 diesel generators;

- 4 high pressure diesel pumps;

- 10 motor pumps;

3.     A set of organizational and technical actions to mitigate consequences of beyond design basis and severe beyond design basis accidents is implemented as planned and to be completed in 2016 in the following major areas: seismic stability, power supply, heat removal, explosion protection, control and management of emergency preparedness.

The scheduled additional emergency actions will increase the survivability and independence of the plant under beyond design basis accidents for 5 to 10 days, and, hence, allow safety enhancement of the NPP in general.

Since 2001 Novovoronezh has seen a number of international peer audits and inspections:

- the IAEA is planning to perform an OSART mission in 2015;

- WANO peer audits in 2004, 2007 and 2011;

- International insurance inspections in 2011 and 2012.

Location: Voronezh Region, distance to the satellite town of Novovoronezh) – 3.5 km; to the regional centre of Voronezh – 45 km.

Contacts: address: Russia 396072 Voronezh Region, Novovoronezh.

Tel.:  +7-473-64-7-33-39; +7-915-543-45-82.

E-mail: postmaster@nvnpp.vrn.ru


Kola NPP:

The Kola NPP is the first nuclear plant in Russia constructed beyond the Arctic Circle.

Electrical energy generation of the Kola NPP is about 60% of the total amount of Murmansk Region. The plant supplies energy to the Kolenergo power network of Murmansk Region and Karelenergo power network of the Republic of Karelia.

In terms of organization, Kola is divided into the first stage (Units 1 and 2) and second stage (Units 3 and 4) due to design differences of the VVER-400 reactors of the V-230 design (Units 1 and 2) and of the V-213 design (Units 3 and 4).

In 1991 to 2005, a large-scale renovation of the equipment was performed on the first stage at Units 1 and 2, which allowed making them compatible with new requirements of the safety regulations and extending the operating life for 15 years beyond the designed one, which was 30 years.

In 2007, reconstruction of Units 3 and 4 was begun. In 2011, Rostechnadzor issued the license to operate Unit 3 beyond the design operating life, which was 30 years.

Lake Imandra is a source of circulating water supply for Units 1, 2, 3 and 4 of the nuclear plant.

The installed capacity of the Kola NPP is 1,760 MW.

Or information on the operating units of the Kola NPP see the table below.

Unit No.

 

Installed capacity, MW

Reactor type

Reactor plant type

Turbine type

Generator type

Date of start-up

1

440

VVER-440

V-230

K-220-44

TVV-220-2

29.06.1973

2

440

VVER-440

V-230

K-220-44

TVV-220-2

09.17.1974

3

440

VVER-440

V-213

K-220-44

TVV-220-2

24.03.1981

4

440

VVER-440

V-213

K-220-44

TVV-220-2

11.10.1984

 

Considering the lessons learnt after the Fukushima-Daiichi accident, the following has been done:

1.     Stress tests of the NPP units with the issue of the 17.11.2011 Report on Safety Analysis of the Kola NPP under Extreme External Effects;

2.     Additional mobile emergency equipment to mitigate design basis accidents and manage beyond design basis ones was supplied:

- 8 diesel generators;

- 4 high pressure diesel pumps;

- 12 motor pumps;

3.     A set of organizational and technical actions to mitigate consequences of beyond design basis and severe beyond design basis accidents is implemented as planned and to be completed in 2016 in the following major areas: seismic stability, power supply, heat removal, explosion protection, control and management of emergency preparedness.

The scheduled additional emergency actions will increase the survivability and independence of the plant under beyond design basis accidents for 5 to 10 days, and, hence, allow safety enhancement of the NPP in general.

Since 2001 Kola has seen a number of international peer audits and inspections:

- the IAEA is planning to perform an OSART mission in 2014;

- WANO peer audits in 2001, 2006, 2008 and 2012;

- International insurance inspection in 2008.

The Kola NPP ranked No. 2 among the best Russian nuclear plants in 1996, 2001, 2005, 2006, 2007 and 2008, and was twice recognized the winner of the industrial safety culture competition in 2006 and 2008.

Location: Kola Peninsula, distance to the satellite town (Polyarnie Zori) – 11 km; distance to the regional centre (Murmansk) – 170 km.

Contacts: address: Russia 184230 Murmansk Region, Polyarnie Zori.

Tel.:  +7-815-32-4-36-41; +7-921-280-00-89.

E-mail: kolanpp@kolatom.murmansk.ru

Balakovo NPP:

The Balakovo NPP is the largest power producer in Russia.

The NPP operates four units with VVER-1000 (design V-320). Each of the units has a two-circuit heat flow system. Each of the unified units is a separately standing building consisting of a reactor building, turbine hall, deaerator floor and electrical equipment room.

The primary equipment is located together with the reactor in a reinforced concrete containment lined with sheet steel inside.

A cooling pond is a source of circulating water supply for Units 1, 2, 3 and 4. Make-up of the cooling pond comes from the Saratov Reservoir on the Volga river.

Installed capacity of the Balakovo NPP is 4,000 MW.

For information on the operating units of the NPP see the table below.

Unit No.

 

Installed capacity, MW

Reactor type

Reactor plant type

Turbine type

Generator type

Date of start-up

1

1000

VVER-1000

V-320

K-1000-60/50

TVV-1000-2

28.12.1985

2

1000

VVER-1000

V-320

K-1000-60/50

TVV-1000-2

08.10.1987

3

1000

VVER-1000

V-320

K-1000-60/50

TVV-1000-2

24.12.1988

4

1000

VVER-1000

V-320

K-1000-60/50

TVV-1000-2

11.04.1993

 

Considering the lessons learnt after the Fukushima-Daiichi accident, the following has been done:

1.     Stress tests of the NPP units with the issue of the 17.11.2011 Report on Safety Analysis of the Kola NPP under Extreme External Effects;

2.     Additional mobile emergency equipment to mitigate design basis accidents and manage beyond design basis ones was supplied:

- 8 diesel generators;

- 4 high pressure diesel pumps;

- 12 motor pumps;

3.     A set of organizational and technical actions to mitigate consequences of beyond design basis and severe beyond design basis accidents is implemented as planned and to be completed in 2016 in the following major areas: seismic stability, power supply, heat removal, explosion protection, control and management of emergency preparedness.

The scheduled additional emergency actions will increase the survivability and independence of the plant under beyond design basis accidents for 5 to 10 days, and, hence, allow safety enhancement of the NPP in general.

Within the industrial "Programme of Increasing Electrical Power Generation at Operating NPP Units for 2011 to 2015", Balakovo 2 and 4 were put into commercial operation at 104% of the designed capacity. Balakovo 1 and 3 were put into experimental commercial operation at 104% of the designed capacity.

Since 2001 Balakovo has seen a number of international peer audits and inspections:

- the IAEA – OSART in 2008, OSART (FU) in 2010;

- WANO peer audits in 2003 and 2006;

- International insurance inspections in 2009 and 2012.

The Balakovo NPP ranked No. 1 among the best Russian nuclear plants in 1995, 1999, 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008 and 2011, No. 2 in 2002 and 2010, and was thrice recognized the winner of the industrial safety culture competition in 2006, 2007 and 2009.

The Balakovo NPP is a prize winner of the 14th International Competition "Gold Medal for European Quality".

Location: Saratov Region, distance to the satellite town of Balakovo – 12.5 km; distance to the regional centre of Saratov – 145 km.

Contacts: address: Russia 413866 Saratov Region, Balakovo.

Tel.: +7-8453-49-74-00;

+7- 905- 327- 91- 38.

E-mail: npp@balaes.ru

Kalinin NPP:

The Kalinin NPP generates 70% of the total electrical energy produced in Tver Region. The nuclear plant generates power to the Unified Power System of the Centre of Russia and farther via high voltage lines to Tver, Moscow, St. Petersburg, Vladimir and Cherepovets.

Owing to its geographical situation, Kalinin carries out high voltage transit of electrical power. The outdoor switchyard circuit ensures reliable power supply to the consumers, generating power under all operating modes of the nuclear plant.

Kalinin comprises two stages. The first one includes two units with an installed capacity of 1,000 MW, each located in two containments of the reactor buildings. The auxiliary buildings and structures are connected with the main building with a system of walk bridges and overpasses. Units 1 and 2 were constructed in 1984 and 1986, respectively.

The construction of the second stage within Units 3 and 4 was begun in 1984.

The power start-up of Kalinin 3 took place on December 16, 2004, and the units was put into commercial operation on November 8, 2005. Unit 3 was constructed as a separately standing special building with relevant extensions of the first stage auxiliaries.

Rostechnadzor issued the license in 2007, and construction of Kalinin 4 was resumed on November 12, 2007. The construction of Unit 4 became the largest investment project of Tver Region for the last few years. On September 25, 2012, Kalinin 4 was put into commercial operation.

The sources of circulation water supply of the NPP units are:

- for Units 1, 2 and 3 – Lake Udomlya;

- for Unit 4 – the cooling towers made up from Lake Udomlya.

The installed capacity of the Kalinin NPP is 4,000 MW.

For information on the operating units of the nuclear plant see the table below.

Unit No.

 

Installed capacity, MW

Reactor type

Reactor plant type

Turbine type

Generator type

Date of start-up

1

1000

VVER-1000

V-338

K-1000-0/1500

TVV-1000-4

09.05.1984

2

1000

VVER-1000

V-338K

К-1000-0/1500

TVV-1000-4

03.12.1986

3

1000

VVER-1000

V-320

K-1000-0/3000

TVV-1000-2

16.12.2004

4

1000

VVER-1000

V-320

K-1000-0/3000

TVV-1000-2

25.09.2012

Considering the lessons learnt after the Fukushima-Daiichi accident, the following has been done:

1.     Stress tests of the NPP units with the issue of the 18.11.2011 Report on Safety Analysis of the Kola NPP under Extreme External Effects;

2.     Additional mobile emergency equipment to mitigate design basis accidents and manage beyond design basis ones was supplied:

- 8 diesel generators;

- 4 high pressure diesel pumps;

- 12 motor pumps;

3.     A set of organizational and technical actions to mitigate consequences of beyond design basis and severe beyond design basis accidents is implemented as planned and to be completed in 2016 in the following major areas: seismic stability, power supply, heat removal, explosion protection, control and management of emergency preparedness.

The scheduled additional emergency actions will increase the survivability and independence of the plant under beyond design basis accidents for 5 to 10 days, and, hence, allow safety enhancement of the NPP in general.

Within the industrial "Programme of Increasing Electrical Power Generation at Operating NPP Units for 2011 to 2015", Kalinin 1, 2 and 3were put into experimental commercial operation at 104% of the designed capacity.

Since 2001 Kalinin has seen WANO peer audits in 2004, 2008, 2010 and 2012.

The Kalinin NPP ranked No. 1 among the best Russian nuclear plants in 2002 and No. 2 in 2003, 2004 and 2011.

Location: Tver Region, distance to the satellite town of Udomlya – 4 km; distance to the regional centre of Tver – 125 kmм.

Contacts: address: Russia 171841 Tver Region, Udomlya.

Tel.: +7-482-55- 6- 72- 74.

E-mail: knpp@knpp.ru

Rostov NPP:

The Rostov NPP is one of the largest energy facilities in the south of Russia. It is the most southern of the Russian NPPs. The plant provides 40% of electrical power in Rostov Region. Electrical power is supplied via five power transmission lines LEP-500 to Volgograd and Rostov regions, Krasnodar and Stavropol territories, and via two power transmission lines to the city of Volgodonsk.

The Rostov NPP belongs to a series of unified NPP designs with VVER-1000 meeting the requirements of series construction. The entire capacity of the NPP was intended to cover the demand of the united system of the Northern Caucasus.

The full-scale construction of the Rostov nuclear plant was begun in October 1979. In 1990, it was suspended, and the plant was taken to conservation. By the time of suspension, Unit 1 was 95% ready, Unit 2 was 30% ready, a foundation slab of Unit 3 was constructed, and a pit was excavated for Unit 4.

In 2000, Gosatomnadzor of Russia issued the construction license, and the construction of Rostov 1 with VVER-1000 was continued. On March 30, 2001, the turbine generator of Unit 1 was connected to the Unified Power System of Russia.

The construction of Unit 2 with VVER-1000 was resumed in 2002. In 2006, the activities were put on a wide scale. In 2010, Rostov 2 was put into commercial operation.

Rostov 3 and 4 are currently under construction and to be started in 2014 and 2017, respectively.

A cooling pond is a source of circulating water supply of Units 1 and 2. The cooling pond is made up from the Tsimlyansk reservoir on the Don river.

The installed capacity of the Rostov NPP is 2,000 MW.

For information on the operating NPP units see the table below.

Unit No.

 

Installed capacity, MW

Reactor type

Reactor plant type

Turbine type

Generator type

Date of start-up

1

1000

VVER-1000

V-320

K-1000-0/1500

TVV-1000-4

30.03.2001

2

1000

VVER-1000

V-320

K-1000-0/1500

TVV-1000-4

16.03.2010

 

Considering the lessons learnt after the Fukushima-Daiichi accident, the following has been done:

1.     Stress tests of the NPP units with the issue of the 18.11.2011 Report on Safety Analysis of the Kola NPP under Extreme External Effects;

2.     Additional mobile emergency equipment to mitigate design basis accidents and manage beyond design basis ones was supplied:

- 4 diesel generators;

- 2 high pressure diesel pumps;

- 6 motor pumps;

3.     A set of organizational and technical actions to mitigate consequences of beyond design basis and severe beyond design basis accidents is implemented as planned and to be completed in 2016 in the following major areas: seismic stability, power supply, heat removal, explosion protection, control and management of emergency preparedness.

Within the industrial "Programme of Increasing Electrical Power Generation at Operating NPP Units for 2011 to 2015", Rostov 1 was put into experimental commercial operation at 104% of the designed capacity. Now, the documents are drafted to take the unit to commercial operation at 104% of the designed capacity. Documents are being prepared for Unit 2 to receive authorization for experimental commercial operation at 104% of the designed capacity.

Since 2001 Rostov has seen a number of international peer audits, missions and inspections:

- the IAEA – OSART in 2005, OSART (FU) in 2007;

- WANO peer audits in 2003, 2006. 2010 and 2012;

- International insurance inspection in 2012.

The Rostov NPP ranked No. 1 among the best Russian nuclear plants in 2004 and 2011, No. 2 in 2005, and was thrice recognized the winner of the industrial safety culture competition in 2005, 2008 and 2010.

Location: Rostov Region, distance to the satellite town of Volgodonsk – 16 km; distance to the regional centre of Rostov-on-Don – 205 km.

Contacts: address: Russia 347388 Rostov Region, Volgodonsk-28.

Tel.: +7-863-92-3-06-33;

+7- 903- 403- 29- 52.

E-mail: admin@rosnpp.org.ru


Technical Characteristics of VVER-440 Reactors:

 

No.

 

 

Parameters

 

VVER-440 unit,

V-179 reactor plant,
Novovoronezh 3 and 4

VVER-440 unit,

V-230 reactor plant,
Kola 1 and  2

VVER-440 unit, V-213 reactor plant,

Kola 3 and 4

 

1

Electrical capacity, MW

417

440

440

2

Thermal capacity, MW

1,375±27

1,375±27

1,375±27

3

Efficiency, %

29.7

32

32

4

Coolant pressure in reactor, MPa

12.26±0.2

12.26±0.2

12.26±0.2

5

Average coolant temperature at reactor inlet, °С

269

265÷270

265÷270

6

Average coolant temperature at reactor outlet, °С

300

292÷301

293÷302

7

Coolant heatup in reactor, °С

28.7 (Unit 3)

28.6 (Unit 4)

29.9

30.2

8

Coolant flow through reactor, m3/h

42,615 (Unit 3)

42,810 (Unit 4)

42,000÷47,500

39,000÷43,000

9

Pressure difference on reactor when operating on hot water of four reactor coolant pumps, MPa

0.230 (Unit 3)

0.245 (Unit 4)

0.314±0.02

0.274±0.02

10

Concentration of boric acid Н3ВО3 in primary coolant, g/dm3

0÷12

0÷12

0÷16

11

Number of fuel assemblies

349

349

349

12

Fuel material

UO2

UO2

UO2

13

Number of control elements

73

37

37

14

Steam pressure before turbine, kgf/cm2

44

44

44

15

Steam flow from each of 6 operating steam generators, t/h

450

450

450

16

Feedwater temperature:

- heaters disconnected

- heaters connected

164

223

164

223

164

223

17

Design power operation time, days.

7,500

7,000

7,000

18

Capacity factor, %:

- design

- achieved in 2012

85.62

87.06 (Unit 4)

79.91

64.3 (average for Units 1,2,3,4)

79.91

64.3 (average for Units 1,2,3,4)

Technical Characteristics of VVER-1000 Reactors:

No.

Parameters

VVER-1000 unit,

V-187 reactor plant,

Novovoronezh 5

VVER-1000 unit,

V-338 reactor plant,
Kalinin 1 and 2

VVER-1000 unit,

V-320 reactor plant,

Kalinin 3 and 4,

Balakovo 1, 2, 3 and 4,

Rostov 1 and 2

1

Electrical capacity, MW

1,000

1,000

1,000

2

Thermal capacity, MW

3,000+60

3,000+60

3,000+60

3

Efficiency, %

33

33

33

4

Coolant pressure in reactor, MPa

15.7±0.2

15.7±0.2

15.7±0.2

5

Average coolant temperature at reactor inlet, °С

290

291

288±1

6

Average coolant temperature at reactor outlet, °С

320

326

328

7

Coolant heatup in reactor, °С

30.0

32.5

30.0

8

Coolant flow through reactor, m3/h

88,900

+2,300

-3,200

88,000

+2,700

-3,500

84,800

+4,000

-4,800

9

Pressure difference on reactor when operating on hot water of four reactor coolant pumps, MPa

3.45

3.8

3.8±0.6

10

Concentration of boric acid Н3ВО3 in primary coolant, g/dm3

0÷16

0÷16

0÷16

11

Number of fuel assemblies

151

(canned FA)

163

(non-canned FA)

163

(non-canned FA)

12

Fuel material

UO2

UO2

UO2

13

Number of control elements

109

(LPSh drive type)

61

(ShEM drive type)

61

(ShEM drive type)

14

Steam pressure before turbine, kgf/cm2

6.27±0.19

6.27±0.19

6.27±0.19

15

Steam flow from each of 6 operating steam generators, t/h

1,470+103

1,470+103

1,470+103

16

Feedwater temperature:

- heaters disconnected

- heaters connected

164±4

220±5

164±4

220±5

164±4

220±5

17

Design power operation time, days.

6,500

6,500

6,500

18

Capacity factor, %:

- design

- achieved in 2012

74.4

84.23

74.2

86.06 (Unit 2)

74.2

90.1 (average for Balakovo 1÷4)